If the policy reforms designed to reduce long prison sentences were prospective and applied only to new convictions, then prison populations would decline only slowly.
Crime is not a static phenomenon. This suggests that the importance of different spatial units will change over time, which opens up a new area for exploration in studying crime trends.
Crime and race sometimes were conflated in political conversation.
This reassessment should recognize that abuse of illegal drugs is both a health policy and a justice policy issue. The study of crime trends is as old as criminology itself, yet it is fair to say criminologists know less about the factors affecting change over time in crime rates than about those related to individual differences in criminal behavior.
Through laws, such as the Prison Litigation Reform Act, the role of courts in reviewing conditions of confinement has been restricted see Chapter 6.
Homicide was just one indicator of declining public safety, as the overall violent crime rate doubled in that same decade Maguire, n. In weighing the scientific evidence on the causes and consequences of the high rates of incarceration in the United States, and then considering the implications of that evidence for public policy, the committee found it instructive to refer to the principles that govern the use of imprisonment for crime control and define the proper role of prison in a democratic society.