This results from such places having the lowest level of legitimate opportunities, and therefore robbery becomes a plausible illicit opportunity for success. Petrosino and Brensilber interviewed 28 incarcerated convenience store robbers in Massachusetts, and they indicated a much lower level of planning with 13 robbers reporting no planning, 12 reporting 5 minutes to 4 hours of planning, and only 3 reporting a week or more of planning.
Some evidence has accumulated that such target-hardening strategies, which make locations less attractive for criminals, do lower risk of robbery.
The outcomes of this crime, from reporting to authorities to clearing the crime by an arrest, are highly dependent upon the nature of the targeted victim. The true percentage may be lower if businesses are more likely to report victimization than are individuals. Victims tend to have large amounts of valuable commodities such as drugs or cash.
Banks, however, tend to be prepared to convince robbers otherwise with a variety of measures including security cameras, alarm systems, personnel training programs, security mechanisms for tracking bills, time locks, and occasionally armed security.
Convenience Stores One setting of particular interest for robbery and its consequences is the convenience store. An inference can be drawn that some effort goes into commercial target selection in the context of American convenience store robberies and other commercial robberies.
Since commercial robbery is likely to have a higher level of reporting, this does not translate into a large knowledge gap regarding the extent of this particular type of robbery.
Clearly, robbery is not a homogeneous event and therefore suggestion of a single best practice with regard to dealing with a robbery from the perspective of the victim may not be appropriate.
In sum, one may expect to find higher robbery rates in neighborhoods with fewer legitimate opportunities and with lower levels of social control. This is probably best understood as a contest of coercive power in which injury, resistance, and completion of the event could all be outcomes of interest in the context of the robbery transaction.