In addition to the key variables of the monocentric city model, a study by Burchfield et al. Urban areas accounted for 2.
The first concerns the measurement of sprawl and provides some observations about the data that are available for this purpose in Europe. Planning policies that increase population densities in urban areas do tend to reduce car use, but the effect is a weak one, so doubling the population density of a particular area will not halve the frequency or distance of car use.
These are supplemented by a set of data on various economic and geographical variables that might explain the variation of the two indices. In addition to these economic variables, the impacts of other geographical, socio-cultural and climatic factors, suggested by the literature, are also considered.
An additional computer map overlay showing state boundaries was used to select data for individual states for a more localized view of soil losses due to urban sprawl.
The housing and population density statistical information was extracted from the Census of Population and Housing and associated maps U.